Amniocentesis: examination of the amniotic fluid effected by an injection across the abdominal wall. Useful for the prenatal diagnosis of some genetic diseases.
Androgens: male sexual hormones mainly secreted by the testicles. They determine the male sexual characteristics and have masculinising or virilising properties.
Climaterium, symtoms of: Climacterium, symptoms of: signs and symptoms that mark the cessation of the reproductive life of the woman (e.g. hot flushes, mood changes, urinary difficulties etc.)
Contraceptive: drug, device or method to prevent conception.
Dysmenorrhoea: painful menstruation.
Endometrium: inner layer of the womb.
Fecundation: process of union of a spermatozoo and an egg to generate a new individual.
Hirsutism: hair growth in women with male-type distribution.
Juvenile acne: skin disease due to inflammation of the pylosebaceous follicles stimulated by androgenous hormones.
Leukorrhoea: gynaecological disorder characterised by abundant genital discharges, whitish and without blood.
Menarche: onset of first menstrual cycle.
Menopause: stage following the fertile life of the woman, beginning around 45-50 years; linked to the physiological cessation of sexual hormone production by the ovaries, with consequent absence of the menstrual cycle.
Menorrhagia: very abundant, prolonged menstruation.
Metrorrhagia: uterine haemorrhage occurring in periods other than the normal ones of the menstrual cycle.
Oestrogens: female sexual hormones mainly secreted by the ovaries. They determine the female sexual characteristics and regulate the development of breasts and endometrium.
Osteoporosis: disease of the skeleton characterised by reduction of bone density with consequent fragility and increased risk of fracture.
Ovarian cysts: cavitary formations of the ovary, usually containing liquid of benign origin.
Progesterone: hormone secreted by the ovary and placenta. It serves to prepare the endometrium to receive the fertilised egg. It has an important role in maintaining the pregnancy.
Vaginitis: inflammation of the vagina.